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Transport Committee: Pause Smart Motorway roll-out until safety can be delivered and assured

MPs have called on Government to pause the rollout of all-lane running Smart Motorways until five years of safety and economic data is available and safety improvements have been delivered and independently evaluated.

According to the Commons' Transport Select Committee, the Government decision in March 2020 that all smart motorways would be all-lane-running motorways was premature. Data on the safety and economic performance of existing all-lane running Smart Motorway schemes were insufficient to reach that judgment.

In its report, the Committee says that safety risks on all-lane-running smart motorways should have been addressed by the Government and National Highways (previously Highways England) before the motorway schemes were rolled out. Safety improvements to all-lane running smart motorways should have been delivered in a timely fashion. Instead, promises to prioritise improvements were broken.

The Committee concludes that the scale of safety measures needed to effectively and reliably mitigate the risks associated with the permanent removal of the hard shoulder on all-lane running motorways has been underestimated by successive Administrations, the

Department for Transport and National Highways.


Limited post-opening data are available for many smart motorway schemes and especially for all-lane running motorways. The Office of Rail and Road observed that only 29 miles of all-lane running motorways have five years of safety data available and that much less information is available for the remaining 112 miles. Until five years of safety data are available for all-lane running Smart Motorways introduced before 2020, the Committee calls on the Department for Transport and National Highways to pause the roll-out of all-lane running Smart Motorways. Until then, safety data on new types of motorway must be treated with caution, says the Report.

The Committee previously reported on all-lane running motorways in June 2016, concluding that the trade-off on safety was an “unacceptable price to pay” for the benefits of all-lane running. The 2016 Report urged the Government not to proceed with its major investment in the motorways while “major safety concerns” existed. In response, the Department for Transport and Highways England promised safety improvements. In March 2020, the current Secretary of State initiated a stocktake of evidence resulting in an 18-point action plan. However, today’s report from the Transport Committee concludes that those steps do not fully address the risks associated with the removal of the hard shoulder.

The design of motorways and major roads can currently be altered without any independent assurance on safety by a regulatory body. Introducing changes to the design and operation of the Strategic Road Network should depend on a formal safety assessment by the Office of Rail and Road. The Office for Rail and Road exercises such a responsibility for rail; the Committee recommends it should be given a similar responsibility for roads.

The Committee has called on the Department for Transport and National Highways to:

  • Retrofit emergency refuge areas to existing all-lane running Smart Motorways to make them a maximum of one mile apart, decreasing to every 0.75 miles where physically possible.

  • Insert the emergency corridor manoeuvre into the Highway Code to help emergency services and traffic patrol officers to access incidents when traffic is congested.

  • Commission the Office for Rail and Road to conduct an independent evaluation of the effectiveness and operation of stopped vehicle technology.

  • Beginning in September 2022, task the Office of Rail and Road with evaluating the Department’s progress, particularly the incidences and response times for live lane breakdowns and educating drivers on the correct action to take.

All-lane running motorways – the permanent conversion of the hard shoulder into a live lane for traffic – were first introduced on to the Strategic Road Network in 2014.

Controlled Motorways, which have a permanent hard shoulder with technology to regulate the speed and flow of traffic, have the lowest casualty rates of all the types of motorways on the Strategic Road Network. The report calls on the DfT to set out the business case for controlled motorways compared with all-lane running motorways.

Dynamic hard shoulder motorways use the hard shoulder part-time to provide an extra lane. MPs recommend trialling alternative ways to reduce driver confusion, such as introducing a more consistent approach where the hard shoulder is used at known times.

To read the full report, click here.

Parliament November 2021

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